Who Discover Chemistry and Other Science Subjects. This article explains how science and other scientific subjects were discovered, and the possible way to teach students science to understand and advance in science.


Teaching students to think is one of the most significant and prevalent purposes of education. This overarching objective should be shared by all academic subjects. Science makes a distinctive contribution since it places a strong emphasis on speculating, modifying the physical universe, and drawing conclusions from facts.
These scientific abilities have variously been referred to as scientific thinking, scientific method, and critical thinking. These abilities are categorized as a group of widely transferable capabilities. appropriate and representative of scientific behavior.


Science is the knowledge of consequences and dependence on one fact upon another (Thomas Hobbies).

Science is simply common sense at it best that is rigidly accurate in observation and merciless to fallacy in logic (Thomas Henry Huxley).

Science consists of simple facts that general laws and conclusions may be drawn from them. (Charles Darwin)

Science provides methods of determining what is objectively real, based on evidence (Esitime John).


A scientific theory is founded on a thorough analysis of the data.
A scientific theory is a well-organized explanation that frequently includes a scientific hypothesis and scientific rules in order to explain a collection of data about a phenomenon in the natural world.
The end outcome of the scientific method is not a scientific theory; theories, like hypotheses, can be supported or disproven. A scientific theory also serves as the foundation for observations and facts, according to Tanner. Some of the theories are as follows:

  • Cell theory
  • Theory of evolution
  • Atomic theory
  • kinetic theory of gases
  • Theory of relativity
  • Quantum field theory

Aristotle is considered by many to be the first scientist, although the term postdates him by more than a millennium.


Process skills are ways of the about and interacting with materials and phenomena that can lead to an understanding of new scientific ideas and concepts.

  1. Skill-Observation: Making observations is fundamental to all learning. Observations are made by using one or more of the five senses
  2. Skill classification: Classification is the ordering or grouping of phenomena in accordance with a recognized framework.
  3. Skill-Inference: An inference is a conclusion drawn from a single or a group of observations. A conclusion must be evaluated and judged based on the past.
  4. 4. Skill-Prediction: Prediction is the formulation of expected results based on past experience. Prediction is based upon inference.
  5. 5. Skill-Measuring: Measuring properties of objects and events can be accomplished by direct comparison or by indirect comparison with arbitrary units which, for purposes of communication, may be standardized.
  6. 6. Skill-Communication: In order to communicate observations, accurate records must be kept which must be submitted for checking and re-checking by others.
  7. 7. Skill-Interpreting Data:It requires the application of other basic process skills in particular, the processes of inferring, predicting, classifying, and communicating.
  8. 8. Skill-making operational definition: Are made in order to simplify communication concerning phenomena being investigated
  9. Skill-forming questions and hypothesis: Questions are formed on the basis of observations made and usually precede an attempt to evaluate a situation of the event.
  10. Skill-Experimentation: Experimenting is the process of designing data-gathering procedures as well as the process of gathering data for the purpose of testing a hypothesis.

11. Skills –formulating models: Models are used to describe and experience the interrelationship of ideas.

  1. Skill-valuing: Valuing involves integrating several levels of knowledge and judgment.



It consists of observing, classifying, measuring, using numbers, using space and time relationships, inferring, predicting, and communicating.



In general, the research literature indicates that when science process skills are a specific planned outcome of a science program, those skills can be learned by students. Teachers need to select curricula that emphasize science process skills.


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